Gram-negative (GN) bacterial infections present a daunting challenge for clinicians, as they can be especially hard to treat and are associated with high morbidity and mortality, particularly when dealing with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and other antibiotic-resistant pathogens. While the development of novel antibiotic classes to overcome resistance has been lacking, recent advances in the development of next-generation agents as of well-established classes has the potential to help address the critical need for effective therapies for serious, drug-resistant GN infections. As such, it is crucial for members of the infectious disease clinical team who treat these patients to understand how these emerging therapies differ from their more conventional predecessors, how they may effectively fit into current treatment paradigms, and how to effectively approach dosing and therapeutic drug management in order to optimize health outcomes for these difficult-to-treat patients.
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Community oncologists are challenged to stay up to date with updated clinical practice guidelines on the personalization of treatments for genitourinary (GU) cancers, including prostate, urothelial, and renal cancers, combination/sequential therapies, emerging safety and efficacy data from ongoing studies of novel regimens, and strategies to facilitate patient engagement in order to improve patient outcomes. Clinicians need tools and resources to help educate their patients and empower them to participate in their care and make educated treatment choices. Advanced-stage GU cancers consists of a spectrum of disease that requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach supported by a uro-oncologic team. Therefore, it is critical to educate these clinicians on their roles within the multidisciplinary cancer care team and on the importance of effective communication with other members of the team to maximize patient outcomes.